Below, we have defined some common terms and acronynms that are used in agricultural conservation.
Animal Concentration Area (ACA) - Barnyards, feedlots, loafing areas, exercise lots or other similar animal confinement areas that will not maintain a growing crop, or where deposited manure nitrogen is in excess of crop needs. -This excludes areas managed as pastures or other cropland -This excludes pasture access ways, if they do not cause direct flow of nutrients to surface water.
Agricultural Erosion & Sedimentation Control Plan (Ag. E&S Plan) - A site specific plan identifying Best Management Practices to minimize accelerated erosion from agricultural runoff of plowing and tilling activities (Including No-Till) and Animal Heavy Use Areas required by Chapter 102. A Conservation Plan MAY be considered an Ag. E&S Plan IF it addresses the requirements of Chapter 102.
Animal Equivilent Unit (AEU) - One thousand pounds of live weight of livestock or poultry animals, on an annualized basis, regardless of the actual number of individual animals in the unit.
Animal Equivilent Unit per Acre (AEU per acre) - An animal equivilent unit per acre of cropland or acre of land suitable for application of animal manure.
Animal Heavy Use Area (AHUA) - Barnyard, feedlot, loafing area, exercise lot, or other similar area on an agricultural operation where, because of the concentration of animals, it is not possible to establish and maintain vegetative cover of a density capable of minimizing accelerated erosion and sedimentation by usual planting methods.
Animal Unit - One Thousand pounds of live weight of livestock or poultry animals, regardless of the actual number of individual animals compromising the unit.
Best Management Practice (BMP) - A practice or combination of practices determined to be practical and effective at managing nutrients and sediment to protect surface water and groundwater while taking into account the applicable nutrient requirements for crop utilization.
Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) - A farm where large numbers of livestock or poultry are housed inside buildings or in confined feedlots. The determination of when an operation is a CAFO is subject to State and Federal Regulations.
Concentrated Animal Operation (CAO) - Agricultural Operations with eight or more Animal Equivelant Units, where the animal density exceeds two Animal Equivilent Units per acre on an annualized basis. A CAO falls under State Regulations.
Conservation Plan - A plan that identifies conservation practices and includes site specific Best Management Practices, which minimize the potential for accelerated erosion and sedimentation, for agricultural plowing or tilling activities (Including No-Till) and Animal Heavy Use Areas.
Forested Riparian Buffer - A permanent area of dense woody perrenial vegetation, which includes trees and shrubs, established parallel to a stream, river, creek, lake, wetland, or sinkhole. The purpose of which is to provide habitat, and minimize the amount of nutrients and sediment that enter the water resources through filtration.
Manure Management Plan - A site specific plan that is written in accordance with the PA Chapter 91 Manure Management Manual for any operation that generates OR spreads livestock or poultry manure.
Manure Application Setback - An Best Management Practice that applys manure application on cropland at a specfied distance from streams, lakes, ponds, rivers, creeks, wetlands, or sinkholest to protect water quality.
Nutrient Management Plan (NMP) - A written site specific plan which meeets the requirements of Act 38 to protect water quality and minimize nutrient loss from agricultural sources. A CURRENT Nutrient Management Plan CAN satisfy the requirements of Chapter 91.
Nutrient Balance Sheet (NBS) - A crop management Best Management Practice developed to protect surface and groundwater quality by providing the calculations for determining the appropriate rate, method, and timing of manure that can be applied to cropland, hayland, and pasture, to meet the purposes of a Nutrient Management Plan. A Nutrient Balance Sheet is NOT THE SAME as a Manure Management Plan; therefore, it MAY OR MAY NOT satisfy the requirements of Chapter 91..
Odor Management Plan (OMP) - A site specific plan to contol building and manure storage odors for those operations that are a Concentrated Animal Operation under Act 38.
Riparian Buffer - A permanent strip of dense perrenial vegetation established parallel to a stream, river, creek, lake, wetland, or sinkhole. The purpose of which is to provide habitat, and minimize the amount of nutrients and sediment enter the water resources through by filtering and utilizing them.
Stormwater - Runoff from the surface of the land resulting from rain, snow, or ice melt.
Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) - A pollutant's maximum allowable amount for any water body that is determined to be not meeting minimum water quality standards, also known as impaired. This sets the maximum average daily limit for the pollutant which the water body is impaired from, such as nutrients or sediment. The TMDL takes the form of a written document, and then a Watershed Implementation Plan can be developed to restore the water body.
Phosphorous Index (P-Index) - The field evaluation method specificially used for a Nutrient Management Plan which combines sources and phosphorous transport to identify areas that have a high vulnerability or risk of phosphorous loss to surface waters. This evaluation method provides direction on Best Management Practices to address the land application of phosphorous-containing nutrient sources to protect water quality.
Watershed Implementation Plan (WIP) - A detailed plan to restore a water body that is currently impaired to meet its water quality standards. This plan looks at the entire watershed that drains to the water body to determine the appropriate actions to reach the goal.
Winter Manure Spreading - Manure spreading between December 15 and February 28, or any time the ground is frozen at least 4 inches deep or is snow covered.